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Categories Of Biology Careers

Categories of Biology Careers


Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They analyze the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Biochemists and molecular biologists do most of their work in biotechnology, where many of the biggest discoveries in medicine occur.


Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all aspects of plant life, including algae, fungi, lichens, mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants; others specialize in areas the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, the causes and cures of plant diseases.  These are the scientists that step up when fungi threaten the vineyards of Napa County or beetles threaten the forests of Northern Maine.


Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Many microbiologists specialize in environmental, agricultural, or industrial microbiology. Microbiologists in medicine research virology (the study of viruses); immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections); or bioinformatics (the process of integrating molecular biology and information science).


Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists working in a clinical rather than research environment  are involved in reproductive issues,  respiration, or in the physiology of other areas of the body.


Biophysicists study the application of principles of physics, such as electrical and mechanical energy and related phenomena, to living cells and organisms.


Zoologists and wildlife biologists study animals and wildlife—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Research may involve live animals in controlled or natural surroundings.  Zoologists and wildlife biologists also may collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of current and potential use of land and water areas.


Ecologists study the relationships between organisms and their environments, examining the effects of population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, ecologists may collect, study, and report data on the quality of air, food, soil, and water.


Agricultural biologists provide a critical social function by ensuring agricultural productivity and the safety of the food supply. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals, and develop ways of improving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. With the advent of genetic alteration in food, some agricultural biologists have found themselves in the midst of a political whirlwind.

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